The collection of fine art of the 20th century was opened for visitors in 1971 in the former medical building of the sanatorium - a building in the pseudo-classical style, built in 1938 opposite the Manor house.

Department “Abramtsevo. Art of the 20th Century”collects and studies the works of artists of the 20th and 21st centuries who worked in Abramtsevo and were creatively associated with it. These are the works of the members of the Jack of Diamonds union (Pyotr Konchalovsky, Aristarkh Lentulov, Ilya Mashkov, Alexander Osmerkin, Vasily Rozhdestvensky, Robert Falk), as well as Nikolay Andronov, Andrey Vasnetsov, Igor Grabar, Eugenia Maleina, Dementy Shmarinov, Nadezda Udaltsova, sculptors Vera Mukhina and Boris Korolyov. Many of these artists lived and worked in the Village of Artists, founded in the 1930s near the Estate, on the opposite bank of the Vorya River.